[5] He was wounded in the neck on the second day of Gettysburg and received a brevet promotion to colonel in the regular army for his service. 23 James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 525-533. He was not glamorous. [5], At the start of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, Doubleday's division was the second infantry division on the field to reinforce the cavalry division of Brigadier General John Buford. Hatch. Doubleday had a number of West Point classmates who served in the Civil War, including John Newton and John Pope. Alderman, 1890), 115. Overall, Doubleday stood number 19 in a class of 76 members; many first-year students did not make it through the plebe year. He subsequently referred to himself as the "hero of Sumter" for this role. … Luckily I was hit squarely by the smooth round surface. According to the National Archives in Washington, D.C., Doubleday’s activities involved mapping the Everglades and the areas that became the cities of Miami and Fort Lauderdale, plus planning for roads and swamp drainage.12. He was born on June 26, 1819, in Ballston Spa, N.Y. Chairman Mills himself, who had been a Civil War colleague of Doubleday and a member of the honor guard for Doubleday's body as it lay in state in New York City, never recalled hearing Doubleday describe his role as the inventor. Doubleday was humiliated by this snub and held a lasting grudge against Meade, but he returned to division command and fought well for the remainder of the battle. His family lived in a tiny house, and they … Abner Doubleday, (born June 26, 1819, Ballston Spa, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 26, 1893, Mendham, N.J.), U.S. Army officer, once thought to be the inventor of baseball. Doubleday was a supporter of abolition and voted for Abraham Lincoln in 1860.14 Most other officers either supported slavery or supported variations between state’s rights or other alternatives in support or opposition to slavery. 555 N. Central Ave. #416 In 1839, West Point began issuing grades and standings for students. The Mills Commission, chaired by Abraham G. Mills, the fourth president of the National League, was appointed in 1905 to determine the origin of baseball. During World War II, the liberty ship SS Abner Doubleday was named in his honor. Unfortunately for that Abner Doubleday, his unearned fame was swept under the carpet and attributed for many years to another man by the same name. [7], Doubleday initially served in coastal garrisons and then in the Mexican–American War from 1846 to 1848 and the Seminole Wars from 1856 to 1858. "[13], However, there is considerable evidence to dispute this claim. The Abner Doubleday Little League and Babe Ruth Fields in Ballston Spa, New York, the town of his birth. 4 Bert Gumpert, Abner Doubleday (unpublished manuscript). Newton, who was number one in his class, relieved General Doubleday as commander of the I Corps during the Battle of Gettysburg,22 and Doubleday served under Pope in the Union defeat at Second Manassas in August 1862.23 Several members of Doubleday’s class served with the Confederate army, including Daniel H. Hill,24 Richard Anderson, Lafayette McLaws, and James Longstreet, all of whom fought at Gettysburg.25, In command of a division in the I Corps, Doubleday was among the first to see action in the battle. This claim has been thoroughly debunked by baseball historians. Doubleday, who died in 1898 at age 73, is buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Section 1, Grave 61, very close to the James Tanner Amphitheater. "Bats, Balls, and Bullets". He was stationed in San Francisco from 1869 through 1871 and he took out a patent for the cable car railway that still runs there, receiving a charter for its operation, but signing away his rights when he was reassigned. In 1858 he was transferred to Fort Moultrie in Charleston Harbor serving under Colonel John L. Gardner. He graduated from the military academy at West Point in 1842 and was an artillery officer in the Mexican War from 1846 to 1848 and in the Seminole War in Florida from 1856 to 1858. Doubleday was in the midst of heavy fighting in the Corn Field and West Woods.19 Late in the battle, Doubleday was wounded when a shell exploded under his horse’s nose, causing the rider and the horse to run over steep rocks. Phoenix, AZ 85004 6 Tim Arango, “Myth of Baseball’s Creation Endures, With a Prominent Fan,” New York Times, November 20, 2010. He died in New York on January 25 th 1893, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. [/fn] and so would have been 11 years old in spring 1840. Mills had been president of the National League from 1882 to 1884. Doubleday's body was laid in state in New York's City Hall and then was taken to Washington by train[5] from Mendham Township, and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia.[6]. If Doubleday were still alive he would likely wonder why his name is connected with baseball and not with his participation in the Civil War battles including Fort Sumter, Second Manassas, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg.38. … Seen not as a foolhardy soldier but as a steadfast one, many times in the future Doubleday would be asked to anchor a line and protect the flank of a large body of soldiers. It was Doubleday's finest performance during the war, five hours leading 9,500 men against ten Confederate brigades that numbered more than 16,000. Doubleday never forgave Meade, and his career with the Army of the Potomac was over.27 Allen C. Guelzo, in Gettysburg: The Last Invasion, writes, “The written update (General John) Hancock sent back to Meade from Gettysburg included a brief statement – “Howard says that Doubleday’s command gave way” – which became fixed in Meade’s mind as proof that Doubleday had lost all control of I Corps and somehow caused the collapse of both the I and the XI Corps. First, his military career was lengthy and he “was the highest ranking officer in the Civil War to have been part of so many of the Civil War’s major events.”1 Second, he did not invent baseball, despite the false assertion from the Mills Commission and others. By the start of the Civil War, he was a captain and second in command in the garrison at Fort Sumter, under Major Robert Anderson. [4] While in Washington, Doubleday remained a loyal Republican and staunch supporter of President Abraham Lincoln. He saw action at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in December 1862 and Chancellorsville May 2-4. His father was a representative of Auburn, New York in the United States Congress, a publisher of newspapers and books, and fought in the War of 1812. / Died: 26 January 1893: How many years did Abner Doubleday live? [6], In the summer of 1878, Doubleday lived in Mendham Township, New Jersey, and became a prominent member of the Theosophical Society. Doubleday received some bruises and could not hold the reins of a horse for a long time.20, Doubleday’s bravery and that of his troops at Antietam earned him promotion to major general of U.S. He is credited in some circles as one of the fathers of baseball, but that has long since been debunked. 2 Biographic information on Abner Doubleday is from Bert Gumpert, who was working on a Doubleday biography for the Civil War Roundtable of New York. On Cemetery Hill, however, the I Corps could muster only a third of its men as effective for duty, and the corps was essentially destroyed as a combat force for the rest of the battle; it would be decommissioned in March 1864, its surviving units consolidated into other corps. [15], There is a monument to Doubleday at Gettysburg erected by his men, admirers, and the state of New York. It does explain, however, why the Baseball Hall of Fame is in Cooperstown, NY (as in the first game was supposedly there). Mary died on March 13, 1907. During his first year he stood 30th out of 85 plebes. In 1908, fifteen years after his death, Doubleday was declared by the Mills Commission to have invented the game of baseball (a claim never made by Doubleday during his lifetime). They had no children. ... My life in the Old Army: the Reminiscences of Abner Doubleday: from the Collections of the New-York Historical Society. That, coupled with the dubious conclusion that baseball had no connection to any foreign game, gave the owners the ammunition they needed to promote baseball as the national pastime.”36, While that helped the owners and eventually led to establishment of the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, the claims of the Mills Commission were spurious and based on evidence that today would not stand up in any court. Furthermore, the primary testimony to the commission that connected baseball to Doubleday was that of Abner Graves, whose credibility is questionable; a few years later, he shot his wife to death and was committed to an institution for the criminally insane for the rest of his life. In the mini-series "North and South" George Hazzard is seen watching a primitive form of baseball with a wounded Orry Main, while referring to the game being invented by Doubleday, a fellow West Point cadet. Doubleday was also the author of two published books on his Civil War experiences. This flies in the face of the fact that Doubleday was a plebe at West Point at that time, was only 20 years old, and had never left West Point from August 1838 until his graduation in 1842. Doubleday’s first combat came during the Mexican War. Abner Doubleday is my great great uncle.everyone always goes on about how he wasnt really the one who created baseball.of,His cousin (my grandmother)Colleen Catherine Doubleday(now Rafuse)has pictures,war papers stating exactly where he died,ant other things of his. In short, the Army’s stance toward slavery was as divided as it was in the rest of the country. His father, Ulysses F., fought in the War of 1812, published newspapers and books, and represented Auburn, New York for four years in the United States Congress. During this time he was promoted to brigadier general of U.S. He and his wife, Mary, retired to Mendham, New Jersey. [18] It hosted the annual Hall of Fame Game, an exhibition game between two major league teams that was played from 1940 until 2008. 19 Genealogytrails.com, West Point bios 1842 class. [7] He retired in 1873. Major Anderson remained in the Union Army, and Doubleday remarked that he was in a cruel situation.16, The Southerners opened fire on Sumter during the early morning hours of April 12, and Anderson offered only token resistance. Doubleday, who died in 1898 at age 73, is buried at Arlington National … Early in the Valley Campaigns of 1864. Army and a general for the Union during the Civil War. The house of his birth still stands in the middle of town and there is a monument to him on Front Street. David W. Anderson is author of “More Than Merkle” and “You Can’t Beat the Hours,” and has spoken at the Seymour Conference and SABR conventions. In both battles Doubleday’s men acquitted themselves well.18, South Mountain was the precursor to Antietam, the bloodiest one-day battle of the war. This reputation was not glamorous. "[5] He was wounded when an artillery shell exploded near his horse, throwing him to the ground in a violent fall. Abner Doubleday summary: Abner Doubleday was an officer of the US. Elisha was born on January 30 1713, in USA. He attended West Point, and graduated in 1842 with a commission in the artillery. He published two important works on the Civil War: Reminiscences of Forts Sumter and Moultrie (1876), and Chancellorsville and Gettysburg (1882), the latter being a volume of the series Campaigns of the Civil War. There, Doubleday was second in command to Major Robert Anderson, who was from Kentucky and was from a slave-owning family. Abner Doubleday. In a letter to his wife he discussed the battle: “The most awful battle of the War occurred yesterday. His paternal grandfather, Abner Doubleday fought in the American Revolutionary War while his maternal grandfather Thomas Donnelly also served in the army as a moun… Contact SABR, 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, http://sabr.org/sites/default/files/images/DoubledayAbner.jpg, /wp-content/uploads/2020/02/sabr_logo.png. While the modern rules of baseball were formulated in New York during the 1840s, it was the scattering of New Yorkers exposed to these rules throughout the country, that spread not only baseball, but also the "New York Rules", thereby harmonizing the rules, and being a catalyst for its growth. His first combat assignment was to lead the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps of the Army of Virginia during the Northern Virginia Campaign. The ostensible reason was a false report by XI Corps commander Major General Oliver O. Howard that Doubleday's corps broke first, causing the entire Union line to collapse, but Meade also had a long history of disdain for Doubleday's combat effectiveness, dating back to South Mountain. Doubleday served in the Mexican War and, during the 1850s, in a campaign against the Seminole Indians in Florida. Doubleday rode with Lincoln on the train to Gettysburg for the Gettysburg Address and Col. and Mrs. Doubleday attended events with Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln in Washington. But some people clearly thought otherwise. Promoted to major, Doubleday served with the 17th Infantry in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia and in the defenses of Washington from September 1861 to May 1862. He was an official scorer for the New Yankees but was also involved in the Baseball Writers Association of America. [17], Doubleday Field is a 9,791-seat baseball stadium named for Abner Doubleday, located in Cooperstown, New York, near the Baseball Hall of Fame. They had no children. The mythology remains strong today, but most serious baseball historians believe the game comes from England and other ball and bat games in prehistory.6. The committee's final report, on December 30, 1907, stated, in part, that "the first scheme for playing baseball, according to the best evidence obtainable to date, was devised by Abner Doubleday at Cooperstown, New York, in 1839." Also while in Washington, Doubleday testified against George Meade at the United States Congress Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, criticizing him harshly over his conduct of the Battle of Gettysburg. An 1838 graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, he is known today more for the myth that he invented Modern Baseball while a cadet at West Point than for his accomplishments as a Major General in the Union Army during the Civil War. [20], The Auburn Doubledays are a minor league baseball team based in Doubleday's hometown of Auburn, New York. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Paul H. Carlson, "Baseball's Abner Doubleday on the Texas Frontier, 1871–1873," Military History of Texas and the Southwest 12 (1974). 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