Drawing on these findings and the detailed narratives of farmers, the article submits that the challenge for the natural recruitment of trees in the study region is for farmers to adopt land management practices that significantly increase the numbers of tree species while reducing the competition from non-tree species, such as C. odorata. Microcomputer Power, 2002. growth and reproduction in Chromolaena odorata,” in Proc. Species of mangroves (Rhizophora apiculata) dominates Both are likely to reduce their potential distribution areas in the future climate, where moisture availability is a key factor for their range expansion. Our data show that the removal of alien invasive plants benefits biodiversity with immediate effects, highlighting that management should be carried out to control this invasive, even if the area has been invaded for a long period of time. Chromolaena odorata in different ecosystems: Weed or fallow plant? The ecology of the highly invasive plant species C. odorata is poorly studied in the Philippines in spite of the fact that it is hard to eradicate, a nuisance in plantations, and known to harm farm animals and decimate forage and native plant species. Climate change enhances invasive species distribution by altering species composition in native ecosystems. Of these, 21 species were categorized as threatened species. Sterilization of these soils eliminated their inhibitory effect. Soils collected beneath Chromolaena in the Western Ghats of India inhibited naturalized/native species and contained over 25 times more spores of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium semitectum than soils collected at the same locations beneath neighbouring native species that were at least 20 m from any Chromolaena plant. Non-native plants that can cause adverse effects are otherwise known as invasive alien plant species which pose a major threat to plant biodiversity conservation and sustainability. Also known as Siam weed, it forms dense stands that prevent the establishment of other plant species. The Striga gesnerioides population in Bauchi State was higher than that recorded in Kano State. Soils collected beneath Chromolaena in the Western Ghats of India inhibited naturalized/native species and contained over 25 times more spores of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium semitectum than soils collected at the same locations beneath neighbouring native species that were at least 20 m from any Chromolaena plant. Mediterranean, semi-arid and temperate climates are now predicted to be unsuitable. Findings showed that wellawel (Chromolaena odorata) leaf extract contains alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, luecoanthocyanins, flavonoids and tannins. 45, no. Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson, an invasive species of the Asteraceae Family, is a weedy shrub native to the warm Central and South America but has successfully invaded other regions of the world including the Philippine islands. But, none of them have provided any significant success. Cecidochares connexa was present at 82 sites in eight localities, limited to around Visayas and Mindanao. Big triangles represent plant species (see Table 1 for species. Biological control of Chromolaena odorata: Preliminary studies on the use of the gall forming fly, Cecidochares connexa in the Philippines, Exotic invasive plant accumulates native soil pathogens which inhibit native plants, Rehabilitation of forest-savannas in Ghana: The impacts of land use, shade, and invasive species on tree recruitment, Spider responses to alien plant invasion: The effect of short- and long-term Chromolaena odorata invasion and management, Dealing with weedy problems in agriculture: The role of three agricultural land use management practices in the forest-savanna ecological zone of Ghana. Essentially all sites have already been invaded C. odorata, and the area occupied … In Bauchi State, S. hermonthica incidence in maize and sorghum fields was 100% in all the communities. Total, nitrogen was within the range of 0.05 - 0.80 ppm. Twenty seven fruits, 23 timbers, 17 summer vegetables and 12 winter vegetables species were identified. Karai and chilli were found the most prevalent. In the coastal forest ecosystems has been found 20 species of plants and three The results emphasize the importance of understanding forest recovery in disturbed ecosystems. cacao and coffee) to preclude invasion of, Abundance and successful invasion is most likely, influenced by the biology of the species (e.g., the allelopathic, rather than by local edaphic conditions. Restauración de la cobertura vegetal en áreas previamente afectadas por la minería aluvial de oro en el Nordeste de Antioquia, Colombia. In Kano State, an average of three maize plants/m2 was attacked by S. hermonthica in Danmako, Bebeji LGA and Burji, Doguwa LGA. Education for the scholarship grant to LT Codilla, JL Codilla for the help in field sampling. The Striga gesnerioides population was negatively related to cowpea grain yield. Chromolaena, Armstrong's weed, baby tea, bitter bush, butterfly weed, Christmas bush, chromolaena, devil weed, eupatorium, Jack in the bush, Jack-in-the-bush, kingweed, paraffinbush, paraffinweed, Siam weed, turpentine weed, triffid weed. Column chromatographic elution of ethanol crude extract yielded 11 fractions, each of which was subjected to bioassay. which inhibit native plants,” Journal of Ecology, vol. Under conditions where head-fires cannot be used for killing dense stands, infestations must be slashed and burnt at the height of the dry season. This anomaly supports the contention that the South African variety of C. odorata has different climatic requirements to the varieties commonly found elsewhere. factors such as water availability and temperature are highlighted. 1189-1197, August 2008. Available Cu ranged from 1.0 to 2.55 mg/kg in Kano State and from 0.49 to 2.91 mg/kg in Bauchi State. Seedling recruitment data from soil seed banks are interrogated with Repeated Measures Analyses of Variance, and these data show that, first, tree life forms are not significantly greater than other life forms, and that in fact tree life forms are the minority in the conditions of the examined agricultural land uses. Chromolaena odoratais a serious invader of many crop lands, plantations, wastelands, rangelands, and reforested areas – infesting up to about 500,000 hectares (Aterrado & Bachiller 2002, Acasio 2003) and is considered one of the seven worst invasive species in the Philippines (Joshi 1989). Biogeography, vol. CanoDraw for windows user guide. Several gaps in our database concerning ecophysiology of tropical tree crops are indicated, major advances are examined, and needs of further researches are delineated. In Bauchi State, the highest population of S. gesnerioides occurred in Gar at Ganjiwa LGA. Natal,” Bothalia, vol. 105-112. The crop physiological responses to environmental. King & H. Rob. teysmannii recorded endemic status and the status of the plant is labeled critical for the existence of this plant, 1. In both states > 90% of cowpea fields had coarse textured soil. King & H. Rob. 131-142, 2010. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts were assessed through diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reducing power (RP). Summary 1. 3. Striga hermonthica incidence in maize fields ranged from 0 to 100% in Kano State and this varied among communities and LGAs. climate,” Weed Research, vol. These results suggest that, has no specific preference for soil parameters, because it can grow in a wide range of pH, between 4, is adapted to a wide range of soil conditions which is, [9]). We identified 458 species comprising 266 tree species, 95 herbaceous species and 97 epiphyte species. The herb/shrub species, Chromolaena odorata is identified as a primary factor for the difficulties of tree recruitment. 18, no. Organic C in Kano State and available P in Bauchi State where negatively related to sorghum grain yield. Dactyloctenium radulans: button grass, but only when growing in high-nitrogen soil, such as in stockyards. Included for each species are descriptive information, ecology, distribution, poisonous principle(s), toxic part(s) of the plant, animal(s)liable to be poisoned, and symptoms as observed in the field. 45-52, distribution of Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed) in relation to. He was conferred, Graduate Diploma of Science in 1992 and Doctor of, Philosophy (zoology) in 1995 at the University of. Available Fe in Kano State (68–155 mg/kg) and Bauchi (38–219 mg/kg) was within the range (140–280 mg/kg) reported in a similar agroecology in northern Nigeria. 100, no. To understand the use of Chromolaena odorata in different agricultural systems and ecosystems, findings of several scientific studies conducted in different areas have been assessed in this review paper. Currently horticulture. The relative prevalence of most common fruit plant like betel nut, banana, mango were 115.074, 63.558, 74.358 respectively while the lowest reletive prevalence was observed for very rare timber species like Babla, Champa and Jarul. In Bauchi State, the range was from 5.6 to 7.5 in maize fields, 5.5 to 7.9 in sorghum fields, and 5.5 to 7.5 in cowpea fields. Predictions made for the current condition was subsequently projected for the years 2050 and 2100 for both moderate and extreme climate change scenarios. Biocontrol of Chromolaena odorata in Papua New Guinea Michael Dayl and Ingu Bofeng2 1 Alan Fletcher Research Station PO Box 36, Sherwood, Qld 4075, Australia, E-mail: ... Cecidochares connexa from the Philippines in 2001 and the leaf mining fly Calycomyza eupatorivora from South Africa in … Lastly, the MaxEnt model exemplifies that the most suitable predicted conditions for invasive alien plant species are at the edges of boundary and buffer zones. The distribution of the gall fly, a biological control agent of chromolaena or Siam weed, was determined for the three main islands – Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao –18 years after its … None of the plant species was found in the 100% haor homestead. Exchangeable Ca and Mg were medium (Ca: 2–5; Mg: 0.3–1.0 cmol/kg) to high (Ca: > 5 cmol/kg; Mg: > 1.0 cmol/kg) in Kano State. It has been introduced into the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Pacific, where it is an invasive weed. Synthesis. It was first recorded in the Philippines on the Zamboanga Peninsula in the 1960s through traders from Borneo (Codilla & Metillo 2011). In both states, soil reaction varied substantially among communities. 1). Modelling, vol. Coconut was found 98.63% in homestead followed by mango (96.72%), banana (91.6%) and betel nut (93.44%). Cecidochares connexa was not found at any of the nine localities surveyed around Luzon. However, farmers’ perception of Striga as the major cause of poor crop growth and low yield agreed with the result of the study. In cowpea fields, variations in S. gesnerioides population were poorly explained by measured soil parameters in Kano. Institute of Technology (MSUIIT), Iligan City, Philipines in 2006. (Copasanda) which an invasive species. The morphological exa, The focus of the study is to determine the management and sustainability of mangrove resources specifically on resource utilization, conservation and the government implementation of the involvemen, Agriculture is an important sector of Indian economy as it contributes about 15% to the total GDP and provides employment to over 60 per cent of the population. 4, pp. The South American composite, Chromolaena (Eupatorium) odorata, is identified as being the alien species currently posing the greatest threat to natural vegetation in the Complex. Flores en racimos blancos con potencial apícola. codes). In sorghum fields, Striga incidence ranged from 63 to 100% in 77% of the communities sampled. The gall fly, Procecidochares … besides the plants included in the Red List of Endangered IUCN, 2012. of the Second International, Workshop on Biological Control and Management of Chromolaena. We are also g. to the copyediting assistance of Dr. MTRD Sanchez-Metillo. There are studies on its insecticidal properties, but its potential as control to housefly is not yet explored. However, in Bauchi State available Fe, Cu, clay, organic C, and total N were negatively related to S. gesnerioides and explained 60% of the variation in its population. Alien clearance is an essential and invaluable management tool. How Chromolaena Odorata is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. 5. For most of these crops, photosynthesis is treated as a central process affecting growth and crop performance. 8-10. Analysis of Vegetation Island Sempu conducted to determine the current condition of the biodiversity existing The positive effect of Chromolaena root leachates on Fusarium spores was attenuated by activated carbon, suggesting a biochemical basis for how the invader stimulated the pathogen. On average, a farm owner, pays about US$5 (August 2011 exchange rate: PhP42.00 to, out from their farms. Chromolaena odorata is a fast-growing perennial shrub, native to South America and Central America. The aim of the survey was to determine Striga incidence and infestation and relate these to soil fertility status and crop yields (maize, sorghum, and cowpea) and to ascertain farmer’s perception on soil fertility and Striga problems in the project areas. The progressive invasion of C. odorata with increasing invasion duration brings with it changes in native spider abundance, assemblage patterns, diversity and estimated species richness. 4, pp. The Striga population in all crop fields differed significantly among communities in both states. Total phenol, flavonoid and flavonol content of the extracts were estimated to determine the levels of phenolics in the extracts. different species of vegetation. 2005; ... Introducido en regiones tropicales de Asia y África, donde se ha convertido en invasora. Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) is a relatively recent introduction and currently has a very limited distribution in northern Queensland. Running head-fires from adjacent grasslands into thickets kills dense infestations. Small lingering differences are observed between the native and the cleared sites, suggesting that other features of the habitat may have been affected by the invasion and clearing. These results show that C. connexa has firmly established in the country and that it has the ability to disperse long distances to new areas. Except for very tall species like coconuts and, the sampling sites was acidic which ranged from, Mean organic matter was fairly low (0.9 - 1.62%). Among them 30.9% fruits, 29.09% timber, 34.54% vegetables and 5.45% were spices species. aqueous and alcohol crude extracts from leaves of Chromolaena, ecosystems: weed or fallow plant?” Applied Ecology and. This article combines primary social research based on surveys and in-depth interviews, and ecological research based on experiment and secondary research to explore the efficacy of three land use management practices, compared with their alternatives, in dealing with on-farm weed problems in Gyamfiase-Adenya-Obom, Ghana. Wellawel leaf extract has weak antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and no anti-fungal activity on Candida albicans. 4. A total of 105 sites in 17 localities with C. odorata were surveyed for the presence of C. connexa. Ajmiriganj upazila of Hobigonj district of Bangladesh was the study area. In sorghum fields, the highest population of Striga was recorded in Lame at Toro LGA in Bauchi State. In Indonesia, chromolaena odorata as opposite, can be found in lowland about 500 above the sea. forest ecosystems obtained a larger amount, namely 77 plant species and four species nails and orchids. However, the revised model supports the previous conclusions that much of tropical Africa, the north-eastern coast of Australia and most Pacific islands are at risk of invasion. Country has emerged as the world's largest producer of mango, banana, coconut and the second largest producer and exporter of tea, coffee, cashew and spices. habitats and was conspicuously absent in dense shady forests, [20]. In Bauchi State, S. hermonthica was negatively related to clay, exchangeable K, and Ca, and was positively related to pH and latitude. Huge postharvest losses, multiple market intermediaries; higher transaction cost, lack of awareness and several other socio-economic factors are some of the acute problems being faced by the Indian agriculture. Chromolaena odorata in Ghana,” in Proc. richness, Relative prevalence and Species diversity. 2009;Li et al. The capacity to tolerate a wide range of temperature and solar radiation allowed T. procumbens to manage climate change impacts more efficiently, compared with C. odorata. odorata, Bogor, Indonesia, 1991, pp. List of various diseases cured by Chromolaena Odorata. There was also a dominance of the invasive herb-shrub species Chromolaena odorata, which is one of the most problematic terrestrial invasive alien species (Zachariades et al. Training Need Assessment of Officers Working in Agricultural Marketing in India, Plant Biodiversity in the Homesteads of Saline Area of Southeastern Bangladesh, Plant-Biodiversity at Ajmerigang Haor Homesteads of Bangladesh, Ecophysiology of tropical tree crops: An introduction. We found that rhizosphere soils of Chromolaena odorata , one of the world's most destructive tropical invasive weeds, accumulate high concentrations of the generalist soil borne fungi, Fusarium (tentatively identified as F. semitectum), thus creating a negative feedback for native plant species. at the same institution from 1998 to the present. It is concluded that both these species should be declared noxious weeds throughout the Republic and that research into their biological control is urgently required. Chromolaena, however, has recently become a key component of woody plant succession in subtropical grasslands. Sparse to moderate infestations with more than 30% grass cover are killed by fire. Chromolaena and other weed problems in the Pacific Islands Warea Orapa, Konrad Englberger and Sada Nand Lal13 Biological control of Chromolaena odorata in Papua New Guinea Ingu Bofeng, Graham Donnelly, Warea Orapa and Michael Day14 Chromolaena — the weed 17 Determining optimal growth conditions for the South African biotype of Chromolaena odorata Environmental Research, vol. Chromolaena es un género de plantas fanerógamas perteneciente a la familia de las asteráceas.Comprende 195 especies descritas y solo 137 aceptadas. 2, pp. The location of, , and the area occupied by the species at these, Loam soil type was common in all sites. The medusae were closely similar to C. mosaicus and C. townsendi in many aspects except that the surface of the central portion of their exumbrella was smooth, and not coarsely granulated. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select communities and fields for sampling in targeted Local Government Areas (LGAs) in both states. The distribution of C. odorata could mostly depend on temperature and moisture availability; and invade the biodiversity-rich regions of India viz., the Eastern Ghats, the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalaya and the north-eastern regions. The study indicated that while more frequent weeding was generally more effective in suppressing weed densities than less frequent weeding, the effect of weeding in significantly reducing weed densities was not associated with weeding frequency per se but with how carefully weeding was accomplished. Striga emergence, number of crop plants attacked by Striga, host reaction, and soil properties were measured from five 2 m × 2 m quadrats in each farmers’ field. contributes 28 per cent of agricultural GDP. The 0.5% ethanol crude extract also reduced the mitotic index in Allium cepa (onion) root tips. Chromolaena density affects grassland species composition, with dense stands in grassland being monospecific. Coconut and mango were found in the highest number of homestead (79%) in the study area. There are a substantial number of programmes that aim to control alien invasive plants but very little is known about the way in which biodiversity recovers after alien plant removal. Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Biological Control and Management of Chromolaena odorata and other Eupatorieae, Nairobi, Kenya, 1-2 November 2010. These data are important for policy-forming and informing policy-makers that alien invasion and removal are critical for biodiversity conservation management. Dysphania spp. Chro-molaena root leachate experimentally added to uninvaded soils increased Fusarium spore density by over an order of magnitude, and increased the inhibitory effect of the soils. In both states, the Striga population was negatively correlated with maize, sorghum, and cowpea grain yields. Only fractions 4 and 5 inhibited seed germination in L. esculentum at 25% concentration. Second, the analyses indicate that the natural recruitment of tree seedlings for tree rehabilitation confronts enormous competition from non-tree species. 949-959, September 1983. Chromolaena odorata on Timorese livelihoods,” Human Ecology, odorata in subtropical grasslands in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa,” in, Management of Chromolaena odorata, Durban, South Afri, Janssen, “Growth of the Chromolaena odorata fallow vegetation in, semi-permanent food crop production systems in South-West Côte. Invasive plants have been shown to escape inhibitory soil biota in their native range and to inhibit soil biota in their invaded range, but our results indicate that the impacts of Chro-molaena are due to the exacerbation of biotic interactions among native plants and native soil biota, which is to our knowledge a new invasive pathway. 4. It was first found in Australia in 1994, when several large infestations were spotted along the Tully River and at Bingil Bay near Mission Beach in far northern Queensland. Chromolaena odorata: Siam weed. [2] Está incluido en la lista 100 de las especies exóticas invasoras más dañinas del mundo [3] de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza. Exclusively distributed by CE-Logic | Terms and Conditions, IAMURE International Journal of Terrestial Ecology. U.S. D. Madulid, A Pictorial Encyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which Siam weed extract (SWE) affected hemo … In conclusion, farmers’ perception on soil quality was inconsistent with the result of laboratory soil analysis, which revealed the poor fertility status of soils in the communities studied. Some impacts of, M. J. Goodall, and P. J. K. Zachariades, “Managing Chrom. 220, no. Robins. Chromolaena, Cairns, Australia, 2003, pp. The fallow management practice of >3 years of fallow showed significantly greater promise of suppressing weeds than ≤3 years of fallow. odorata can be a viable and cheap source for antifungal formulations though the efficacious dosage may be higher than that of Nystatin. Herbaceous aliens were not surveyed. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology, Preliminary Study on the Distribution of the Introduced Gall-forming Fly, Cecidochares connexa (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) for the Biological Control of the Invasive Alien Weed Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. Cleome serrulata: Rocky Mountain bee plant. Forest succession in grassland also ceases once chromolaena becomes thicket-forming. 137-139. Biological control has a major role in rehabilitating grassland to secondary forest or in forest ecosystems that have become invaded. Many efforts are being made for the control of this weed. Its negative impacts on agriculture and biodiversity are clear. Conservation attention should focus on protecting remaining forests and planting native species as part of a forest restoration strategy to enhance faster forest recovery and re-connecting remnant forest patches. these ecosystems do not show significant dominance, but Monkey jack tree (Artocarpus elasticus) has the 1. of, Management of Chromolaena odorata and Mikania mi, Chromolaena odorata: preliminary studies on the use of the gallform. However, its potential distribution is much wider than at present. Chromolaena odorata . (Asteraceae) in the Philippines, Fresh Siam (Chromolaena odorata) Weed Leaf Extract in the Control of Housefly (Musca domestica), Plant diversity patterns in remnant forests and exotic tree species-based reforestation in active limestones quarries in the Luzon and Mindanao biogeographic sub-regions in the Philippines. The area consists of 900 km2 of savanna and forest vegetation. The ethanol extract of E. odoratum had the highest FRAP while the aqueous extract of A. boonei showed the highest RP ability when compared with the other extracts. 4, pp. 3. Chromolaena odorata, or Christmas bush and Siam weed, has been spotted inclusively in the presence of resurrection fern on the top of the roof. However, its detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. Usually, chromolaena odorata can be found on the height from 1000 to 2800 above the sea level. Grasslands not burnt for 20 years succeed naturally to secondary forest or savanna, depending on soil type and aspect. This study implies that most of the physicochemical factors are linked to the presence of invasive alien plant species and Quezon Protected Landscape has a low vulnerability to invasive alien plant species invasion. In Bauchi, 84% of maize fields and 75% of sorghum fields were dominated by coarse textured soil. 5. Results from the association of the physicochemical factors and the presence of invasive alien plant species through Spearman rho test revealed that most of the physicochemical factors have significant association except percent slope and hill shade. Fig. 3. vol. biodiversity monitoring. The Asian tree, Melia azedarach, is considered the second most important alien species invading the area. 13–27, January 2001. flora, in a rain forest zone, south-west Cote d’Ivoire,” Journal of. 1&2, pp. It is likely that C. connexa will continue to disperse further with time. 3. The existing marketing system needs to be updated through improvement in skills, knowledge, attitude etc. 6, pp. Mulching slashed vegetation, as a land preparation practice, was also consistently better at reducing weed densities than burning the slashed vegetation. KEYWORDS: phytochemical, antifungal, Chromolaena odorata, Siam weed, ethanolic extracts, bioactive agents. King and H. Robinson, commonly known as Eupatorium odoratum L. was updated. In Bauchi State, S. hermonthica was negatively related to total N and organic C and was positively related to exchangeable Ca and latitude. Daucus carota: wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace. path method. Implications of this finding are discussed in the light of the species’ invasion and biocontrol in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Philippines. It was transferred to the genus Chromolaena by King and Robinson (1970), and although this conception of the tribe Eupatorieae has met some disagreement among botanists, the new binomial of Chromolaenaodorata (L.) … The distribution of C. odorata in South Africa extends further south than predicted by the model based on Asian and American distribution records. In Kano State, the S. hermonthica population was negatively related to latitude, total N, and exchangeable K and was positively related to sand and silt in maize fields. zoology in Mindanao State University Marawi City, Philippines in 1994, and Master of Science, Education in Mindanao State University-Iligan. 446-458, factors on seed germination and emergence of Chromolaena odorata in, coconut plantations in Sri Lanka. 3&4, pp. Highly invasive plant, soil-borne fungi that act as pathogens on native plants [, The robustness of the species was demonstrated by its rapid, regrowth at the onset of rainy season following a moderate El, found to be wilting in several areas of the Zamboanga, rated low compared to those reported in Ghana (15 - 173 x, has a corresponding cost to farm owners who regularly, remove the weed from their farms. t of respondents in the formulation of the Mangrove Management Plan (MMP) as part of the city’s Coastal Resource Management Plan. 96, no. 1, pp. Native spider assemblages do re-establish after clearing C. odorata without further management intervention. 13-23, January 1991. Average number of sorghum plants/m2 attacked by Striga ranged from 0.98 to 5.4 plants/m2 in Kano State and from 1.22 to 4.23 sorghum plants/m2 in Bauchi State. Ecology, vol. Trees in Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. bioactiv, compounds [24], fallow plant for acidic soils [25]) of the, We deeply thank the Philippine Commission on Higher. 2012) that has also been found in many parts of Philippines and the Asian region affecting biodiversity and favoring disturbed habitats (Muniappan et al.

Baleen Naples Menu, Corsica Ferries Fleet, Strange Terrain Nightfall Shields, Uncc Graduate School Tuition, Ribéry Fifa Cards,